Security Force Assistance (SFA)
DoDIG, Summary of Lessons Learned - DoD IG
Assessment Oversight of "Train, Advise, Assist, and Equip" Operations
by U.S. and Coalition Forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, Inspector
General U.S. Department of Defense, Report No. DODIG-2015-093, March
"Letting Them Scrape a Knee: Advising for Third Order Effects".
Small Wars Journal. A Special Forces officer describes
advising pitfall in Afghanistan.
McShea, Thomas and Kyle Harnnitchek. "Passing
it On: Two SFAAT Teams in Afghanistan and Lessons Learned for Future
Advisors", Small Wars Journal, October 27, 2014.
CALL, "Army Security Cooperation", CALL
Newsletter No. 14-14, July 2014. Center for Army Lessons Learned.
Brown, Frances Z., Rethinking Afghan Local
Governance Aid After Transition, United States Institute of Peace
(USIP), July 30, 2014.
Armstrong, Nicholas J., The Prospects of
Institutional Transfer: A Within-Case Study of NATO Advisor Influence
Across the Afghan Security Ministries and National Security Forces,
2009-2012, Doctoral Dissertation for Syracuse University, May
RAND, Assessing Security Cooperation as a
Preventive Tool, report tests the assertion that U.S. security
cooperation (SC) can help reduce fragility in partner states.
Butler, Colonel William J., Security Force
Assistance: What Right Looks Like, U.S. Army War College,
Class of 2013. The author cites the example of SFA and the Romanian
Army as a good practice for SFA and partnership-building.
Simmering, LTC Michael J. "The Limitations of
Security Force Assistance and the Capabilities of the U.S. Army",
Small Wars Journal, August 13, 2013.
. . .
Moerbe, Captain Wesley, US Army, "Early
Mistakes with Security Forces Advisory Teams in Afghanistan",
Military Review, May-June 2013.
Nelson, Anna Rikki.
Just Good Advice: The American
Advisors in the Vietnam War, Thesis submitted to the University of
Southern Mississippi, July 2013.
DoD Inspector General, Assessment of U.S.
Efforts to Develop the Afghan National Security Forces Command,
Control, and Coordination Sytem", March 22, 2013. Observations on
OCCs, ANA C2, logistics, C2 systems, air support to ANSF, and removal
of negative ANA and ANP officers.
Payne, Leslie Adrienne & Jan
Osburg. Leveraging Observations
of Security Force Assistance in Afghanistan for Global Operations,
RAND Research Report prepared for the United States Army, 2013 based
on research and interviews during January to April 2013. This report
will be of interest to those involved in designing SFA policy and
doctrine and those advising SFA operations in the field.
G. Damon Wells. Conducting Security Force
Assistance in a Rural District: Understanding the Operational Environment,
December 2012. Paper by a SFAAT team member who worked with Afghan
Uniformed Pollice (AUP), Afghan Local Police (ALP) and District Chief of
Police (DCop) in 2012. The paper can be accessed
here on Small Wars Journal.
Captain Colby K. Krug.
Combat Advising = Company Command. Paper by a SFAAT team
leader describing the mission of advising an ANA kandak. October 2012. The
paper can be accessed
Preparing Advisors for Capacity-Building Missions. United
States Institute for Peace (USIP), Special Report 312, August 2012.
Major Evgeniy Ivanov, Ph. D. Bulgarian Army.
Showcasing a New Concept: Unified NATO Security Force Assistance.
NATO/OTAN, April 2012. Accessed on the NATO website
COL John S. Prairie,
The Appropriate Army Organization to
Conduct Security Force Assistance, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle
Barracks, PA, 2012.
Advisor Unit for Afghanistan Transition". Small Wars Journal,
December 15, 2011. Accessed
Barno, David, Andrew Exum and Matthew Irvine.
Next Fight: Time for a Change of Mission in Afghanistan.
Center for a New American Security, December 5, 2011. Accessed
authors state that it is time to move to a new mission of Security Force
Needed to Enhance the Ability of Army Brigades to Support the Advising
Mission. August 2011. Accessed
COL Gary A. Rosenberg,
Security Force Assistance and the Brigade Combat Team: Recommendations
for the Way Ahead, Marshall Center for Security Studies, Germany, June
COL Julian Dale Alford and MAJ Daniel Zappa.
Advise and Assist Group. Small Wars Journal, June 1, 2011.
BG Edward Donnelly and LTC Robert Maginnis,
“Preparing Soldiers to Help Foreign Partners Meet 21st Century
Challenges”, Military Review,
Thomas K. Livingston.
Building the Capacity of Partner States Through Security Force Assistance.
Congressional Research Service (CRS), May 5, 2011. Accessed
Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) Newsletter
11-18, March 2011, Security Force
Assistance, Shaping and Mentoring Afghan Police, accessed on CALL
website at https://call2.army.mil.
Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute,
Doctrinal Framework - The Doctrinal
Nesting of Joint and U.S. Army Terminology, White Paper, U.S. Army War
College, March 10, 2011. This paper describes the combined U.S. Army and
Joint framework to ensure a common basis for discussion.
Jeffrey L. Meeker.
Scale Security Force Assistance: A Measured Approach. Army War
College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, February 17, 2011.
Kelley, Terrence, Nora Bensahel, and Olga Oliker.
Security Force Assistance in Afghanistan: Identifying Lessons for Future
Efforts. RAND Corporation, 2011.
Colonel Scott W. Power.
Security Force Assistance: An Enduring
U.S. Army Structure. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks,
PA, March 11, 2011. Accessed
COL Marc D. Axelberg.
Enhancing Security Force Assistance: Advisor Selection, Training and
Employment, US Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA: 2011.
LTC Joshua J. Potter.
American Advisors: Security Force Assistance Model in the Long War.
Combat Studies Institute Press, Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth,
Kansas, 2011. Accessed
here in 2012. The author served as a Senior Advisor to an Iraqi
division commander while assigned to an Advise and Assist Brigade (AAB).
USMC, (U) Partnering, Mentoring and Advising in Operation
Enduring Freedom, Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned, 6
October 2011, (FOUO).
MAJ David H. Park. "Identifying the Center of
Gravity of Afghan Mentoring",
Military Review (November-December 2010), pages 43-50.
Colonel Robert D. Morschauser,
The Brigade Combat Team – Stability and Security Force Assistance
Operations, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, 2010.
MAJ Brennan Cook,
Improving Security Force Assistance
Capability in the Army’s Advise and Assist Brigade, SAMS, USACGSC,
Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2010.
Gates, Robert M., U.S. Secretary of Defense.
"Helping Others Defend Themselves", Foreign Affairs,
May/June 2010. Gates presents the case for a more robust security
Colonel Ronald Metternich.
Security Force Assistance:
Organization for the Long War. U.S. Army War College, Carlisle
Barracks, PA, March 2010.
Sean R. Pirone, Security Force Assistance:
Strategic, Advisory, and Partner Nation Considerations, Naval Post
Graduate School, Monterey, CA, December 2010.
Haug, Jan E. The Operational Mentoring and
Liaison Team Program as a Model for Assisting the Development of an
Effective Afghan National Army, Army Command and General Staff
College, Fort Leavenworth, KS. June 12, 2009.
Bluesteen, Christopher. "Combat Advising:
Three Challenges We Must Overcome to Succeed in Afghanistan",
Small Wars Journal, 2009.
Taylor, William C., MAJ.
The US Army and Security Force Assistance: Assessing the Need for an
Institutionalized Advisory Capability, CGSC, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12
December 2009. The US Army had difficulty initiating and conducting
advisory operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom due to the lack of an
institutionalized advisory capability. “The need to create an advisory
capability after the requirement developed, resulted in a three-year delay
in Iraqi Security Force development, which threatened mission success in
Iraq. This experience shows that the US Army should consider developing an
institutionalized advisory capability” (text in quotes from paper
SSI, A Comprehensive Approach to Improving
U.S. Security Force Assistance Efforts, Bainski, LTC Theresa et al,
Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2009.
Haynes, Jeff. Reforming the Afghan National
Army (ANA), Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI), November 2009.
Zbylut, Metcalf, et al.
The Human Dimension of Advising: An Analysis of Interpersonal,
Linguistic, Cultural and Advisory Aspects of the Advisor Role, U.S.
Army Research Center, June 2009.
Scott G. Wuestner.
Building Partner Capacity / Security Force Assistance: A New Structural
Program. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College
(Carlisle, PA, February 2009). Accessed
here on the Australian AF website.
Phelps, Major Christopher E., Selecting and Training U.S. Advisors: Interpersonal Skills and the Advisor-Counterpart Relationship, MA Thesis for University of Kansas, April 24, 2009
Military Advisor Proficiency: The Need for Screening, Selection and
Qualification, Fort Leavenworth, KS: 2009. Accessed
here on DTIC.
MAJ William C. Taylor, Jr., Developing an
Institutionalized Advisory Capability, SAMS, USACGSC, Fort Leavenworth,
KS, AY 2009.
Commander’s Guide to Money as a
Weapons System: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, Handbook No.
09-27, April 2009. Center for Army Lessons Learned.
Maxwell, David, "Considerations for Organizing and Preparing for
Security Force Assistance Operations", Small Wars Journal,
March 28, 2008.
CRS, Does the Army need a Full-Spectrum Force
or Specialized Units? Background and Issues for Congress, Washington,
DC: Congressional Research Service, January 18, 2008. RL34333.
Michael J. Metrinko, The American Military
Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World,
August 2008. Access on PKSOI website.
Maxwell, COL David. "Consideration for Organizing
and Preparing for Security Force Assistance Operations", Small Wars
Journal, March 28, 2008.
MAJ Michael R. Binetti,
Institutionalizing Security Force
Assistance, SAMS, Fort Leavenworth, KS, AY 2008.
MAJ Thomas R. Matelski,
Developing Security Force Assistance: Lessons from Foreign Internal
Defense. SAMS, Fort Leavenworth, KS, AY 2008. Accessed
MAJ Jeffery N. James,
Understanding Contemporary Foreign
Internal Defense and Military Advisement: Not Just a Semantic Exercise,
SAMS, USACGSC, Fort Leavenworth, KS, AY 2008.
MAJ Joseph E. Escandon.
The Future of Security Force
Assistance: Is the Modular Brigade Combat Team the Right Organization?
CGSC, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2008. Which is better? The BCT or a
permanent Advisor Corps?
Bolger, Daniel P., “So You Want to Be an Advisor”,
Military Review, March-April
2006. Available online at
G. Cillessen, Captain USMC, Marine
Advisor: Can the Marine Corps Prepare Them Better?, February 6, 2006.
Comtemporary Issues Paper, EWS 2006.
Kilcullen, Colonel David, Australian Army, "28 Articles". March
Occasional Paper 18, Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in
Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador, Robert D. Ramsey III. Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute (CSI) Press, 2006. Available
Occasional Paper 19, Advice for Advisors: Suggestions and Observations
from Lawrence to the Present, Robert D. Ramsey III. Fort Leavenworth,
Kansas: Combat Studies Institute (CSI) Press, 2006. Available online at
U.S. Army Special Warfare School, The
Advisor and His Counterpart in Vietnam, Handout 306, November 29,
Security Force Assistance Bibliography
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