Afghan Jirgas and Shuras
Books on Afghanistan
Afghan War News > Topics > Afghan Jirgas and Shuras
Afghanistan has a rich history of the use of jirgas and shuras. There are several types of jirgas and shuras. In simple terms, a jirga is a meeting held to resolve disputes which have an ad-hoc membership.
Meshrano Jirga. This is the upper house of the Afghan parliament.
Wolesi Jirga. The lower house of the National Assembly.
Loya Jirga. A traditional form of participatory decision making process, similar to a grand traditional assembly. In the 19th century Loya Jirga became a formal national consultative decision making body on critical national issues. Currently recognized by the constitution as an official body authorized to amend the constitution. The heads of state in Afghanistan also calls informal consultative Loya Jirga. 1.
Shuras. A council or group of people who discuss particular issues. Shuras can be held on a number of topics to include governance, security, and development.
Ulama Shuras. A committee of Islamic clergy or educated religious leaders and arbiters of Sharia law.
Gant, Jim and William McCallister, "Tribal
Engagement: The Jirga and the Shura", Small Wars Journal, 2010.
Taizi, Dr. Sherzaman, Jirga System in Tribal
Life, Tribal Analysis Center, April 2007.
Wardak, Ali, Jirga - A Traditional Mechanism
of Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan, University of Glamorgan, UK,
2003. Posted on United Nations website.
January 20, 2014. Jirgas by Khan Idris. A
video by Scott Mann of the The Stability Institute conducting a book
review of two books about jirgas.
November 28, 2013. What was the Loya Jirga
about?. Uploaded to YouTube by NATO. Explains what a Loya Jirga is
and how the BSA was discussed in the November 2013 Loya Jirga.
November 25, 2013. What You Need to Know About
Afghanistan's Loya Jirga. Time World explains the Loya Jirga.
November 24, 2013. President Karzai's closing
speech at Loya Jirga. Karzai gave a speech at the conclusion of the
Afghan Loya Jirga in November 2013 that endorsed the Bilateral Security
Agreement (BSA) with the United States. Video uploaded by TOLO News on
April 24, 2012. Afghan Women's Shura.
Department of Defense video about an Afghan shura coordinated by ISAF.
July 12, 2010. U.S. Military Holds Afghan
Shura to Reopen Medical Clinic in Zabul". Armed Forces Network
Afghanistan. A video about a shura the Zabul Provinicial Reconstruction
Team (PRT) held to reopen a mecial clinic in a contested village under
intimidation by the Taliban.
November 24, 2013. "Afghanistan's Loya Jirga: Q&A". BBC News Asia.
January 28, 2010. "FACTBOX - What is a Loya Jirga?". Reuters.
December 4, 2009. "Local shuras, jirgas and local community efforts in Afghanistan", Examiner.com. This aricle looks at the role that tribal shuras are playing in conflict resolution between Afghan government officials and villages sympathetic to the Taliban.
September 10, 2009. "To Save Afghanistan, Look to Its Past". The New York Times. This news article examines the role the Loya Jirga can play in the establishment of a legitimate Afghan government.
1. Definition is found on page vi of Glossary of a
document by the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU) dated