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Afghan War News > General Info > Women in Afghanistan

Women in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is one of the worst places to live in the world if you are a woman.  The culture of Afghanistan does not provide a favorable environment for women.  Some things may have improved in Kabul and some of the northern areas of Afghanistan since the invasion and occupation of Afghanistan in 2001.  More girls and young women have greater access to education, employment and health services.  However, this is not true of most rural areas in the south.

Afghan Women in Blue Burkhas

Afghan women gather outside the community clinic after attending a medical seminar in Deh Yak district, Ghazni province, Afghanistan, August 19, 2013. Fifty women and men from Deh Yak district and surrounding areas attended the two-day medical seminar, which covered topics such as first aid, sanitation, emergency birthing techniques, and nutrition. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Jessica Reyna DeBooy/Released)

An Afghan Woman's Life Under the Taliban Rule

Life for women under the Taliban was extremely harsh.  Once the Taliban began to take over power in Afghanistan the women of Afghanistan suffered - especially in the cities and in the north where women had more freedom and rights.  Education, employment, and health care opportunities vanished.  If women wore anything other than a burqa they could be whipped by the religious police. 1.

Resistance to Emancipation Movement in Afghanistan

There have been many efforts to change the conditions for women in Afghanistan since 2001.  Many of these programs are funded by the international community through money provided to various Afghan ministries. Unfortunately, Afghan community and religious leaders associate the women reform efforts with modernization - and therefore a link with Western culture and society.  2.

Improvements Since 2001

Life has improved for women in Afghanistan since the overthrow of the Taliban.  School enrollment has increased by 2.5 million for female students.  In early 2012 there were nearly 70 women in the lower house of parliament out of a total of 249 seats.  There has been better employment opportunities and greater access to health care. Women have obtained greater freedom of expression in the media.

Still a Long Ways to Go to Improve Life for Women

Despite the improvements to the life of women in Afghanistan since 2001 there is much more that needs to be done.  Forced marriage is still commonplace and rape victims are jailed because they committed "adultery". Access to medical care is spotty with more women dying of childbirth than any other country in the world. 5. Women are still subject to oppression.  The practice of "baad" - when women are given in marriage to settle disputes - is common.  Educational opportunities, although there have been improvements, have not been extended to all women. Women continue to be extremely dependent upon male members of the family. There is a lack of political will among the country's leadership to promote women's rights and equality.

Elimination of Violence Against Women

 This law, a presidential decree, provides some protection for Afghan women. However, because it is only a presidential decree it can be reversed by Afghanistan's current or next president. Some attempts have been made to have the Afghan parliment pass a similar law -  however, this has been unsuccessful as there is widespread opposition from conversative members of parliament.

What Can Be Done?

Attempts to institute women centric programs with the government of Afghanistan have been frustrating.  Due to inefficiency, cultural differences, and corruption there has not been much traction in this area with the top down approach working through the Afghan government.  Some experienced humanitarian workers advocate a more local solution to change the environment for women in Afghanistan - such as home-based enterprises where Afghan women can provide a needed community service from her home.  3.

The Western nations are not powerless in attempts to improve the lot of Afghan women.  A lot of money has been channeled toward women's health and education.  Many girls schools have opened with funding from the United States and other nations. 4.  These efforts should be continued but with an effort to track the project's progress and reduce the amount of corruption that lessens the impact of the project.

Recruiting Women into ANSF. The international community has insisted that the MoI and MoD recruitment of women increase significantly. While recruitment and training programs exist there are many issues with the success of this program.

Resources about Women in Afghanistan

Ministry of Women's Affairs.  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Women's Alliance for Peace and Human Rights in Afghanistan (WAPHA)

The Plight of the Afghan Woman by Afghanistan Online

Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA)

Afghan Women's Mission

Thematic Dossier: Women, Rights, and Politics - AAN

Canadian Women for Women in Afghanistan

International Center for Afghan Women's Economic Development

Women's Rights in Afghanistan by WikipediA

Campaign for Afghan Women & Girls by Feminist Majority Foundation

Women in Afghanistan.  News on Afghan women by The New York Times.

Secretariat - Gender Section. Organization for Security & Co-operation in Europe.

U.S. - Afghan Women's Council - Georgetown University

Women's Struggle in Afghanistan - NATO

Cultural Support Teams (CST)

Female Engagement Teams (FET)

Publications and Reports on Women in Afghanistan
(listed in chronological order)


SIGAR, Support for Gender Equality: Lessons from the U.S. Experience in Afghanistan, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, February 2021. PDF, 242 pages.


Larson, Anna, "Afghanistan", Women in Conflict and Peace, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Stockholm, Sweden, 2015.


MoFA. Afghanistan's National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 - Women, Peace, and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, June 2015. Posted on PKSOI website.

UNAMA, Justice through the Eyes of Afghan Women: Cases of violence against Women addressed through Mediation and Court Adjudication, United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, April 15, 2015.
http://unama.unmissions.org/ . . . 15_April_2015.pdf

Amnesty International, Afghanistan: Their lives on the line: Women human rights defenders under attack in Afghanistan, April 6, 2015. This report is concerned with the issue of women's subordinate legal, social and political position in Afghan society and the failure of the government to meet its obligations to ensure gender equality and address discriminatory social attitudes.

EU, Factsheet: EU support to promoting Afghan women leaders, European Union External Action, March 8, 2015.
http://eeas.europa.eu/factsheets/ . . . promoting_women_leaders.pdf


SIGAR, Afghan Women: Comprehensive Assessments Needed to Determine and Measure DOD, State, and USAID Progress, SIGAR 15-24 Audit Report, Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, December 2014.

DIPNOTE, "Advancing the Rule of Law Provides Protections for Women and Girls in Afghanistan", Department of State, November 24, 2014.

Nijat, Aarya, The Dilemma of Women and Leadership in Afghanistan: Lessons and Recommendations, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, November 2014. The paper analyses the prospects for women in the post-2014 era in light of the election of President Ghani, reduced number of ISAF forces, and diminished interest and funding for Afghanistan.
www.areu.org.af/EditionDetails.aspx?EditionId= Women and Leadership

NORAD, Working with Gender in Rural Afghanistan: Experiences from Norwegian-funded NGO projects, November 2014.
www.norad.no/en/ . . . /publication?key=417685

Oppermann, Brenda. "Hawks, Doves and Canaries: Women and Conflict", Small Wars Journal, August 13, 2014. Article looks at role of women in conflicts and in stability operations.

United States Institute of Peace (USIP), Women's Access to Justice in Afghanistan, by Erica Gaston and Tim Luccaro, July 17, 2014.

Afghan Women's Network (AWN). Afghan Women Vision 2024,  Heinrich Boll Foundation, March 8, 2014.

Afghanistan, Human Rights Watch World Report 2014.

A Way to Go: An Update on Implementation of the Law on Elimination of Violence against Women in Afghanistan, United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, December 2014.
http://unama.unmissions.org/ . . . UNAMA-report-on-women.pdf


A Way to Go: An Update on Implementation of the Law on Elimination of Violence against Women in Afghanistan,  United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), December 2013.

Women's Rights, Gender Equality, and Transition: Securing gains, moving forward, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU), September 2013. Report funded by the Embassies of The Netherlands and Finland.

U.S. Embassy Kabul Gender Strategy. Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG). This statement contains the gender strategy for the U.S. Embassy and serves as the basis for the Embassy's policy and programmatic engagement on gender issues.


I Had to Run Away.  Human Rights Watch, March 28, 2012.  Accessed here on March 28, 2012.  A report on women and girls jailed in Afghan prisons who have been accused of moral crimes.

Equal Rights, Unequal Opportunities: Women's Participation in Afghanistan's Parliamentary and Provincial Council Elections. Multiple authors, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU), March 2012.  Accessed here on March 13, 2012.

University of Montana, Afghan Women: Guide to understanding an Afghan women's role in her society, Defense Critical Language and Culture Program, Maureen & Mike Mansfield Center, University of Montana, 2012.

Samual Hall. Women's Perception of the Afghan National Police, Heinrich Boll Stiftung (a German foundation), 2011. Paper explores the gender dynamics of Kabul women and police.

Harmful Traditional Practices and Implementation of Law on Elimination of Violence against Women in Afghanistan.  United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, December 9, 2010.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

Afghan Women Speak: Enhancing Security and Human Rights in Afghanistan.  By David Cortright and Sarah Smiles Persinger.  University of Notre Dame, October 2010.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

The "Ten-Dollar Talib" and Women's Rights.  By Human Rights Watch, July 12, 2010.  A report on Afghan women and the risks of reintegration and reconciliation warns against a future government agreement with insurgent forces.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

We Have the Promises of the World.  Human Rights Watch, December 6, 2009.  A report about women's rights in Afghanistan that details the emblematic cases of ongoing rights violations in attacks on women in public life, violence against women, child and force marriage, access to justice, and girl's access to secondary education.  Accessed here Feb 2012.


Evaluation report on General Situation of Women in Afghanistan. Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC), 2006. Accessed here May 2013.


Campaigning against Fear: Women's Participation in Afghanistan's 2005 Elections.  Human Rights Watch, August 17, 2005.  Accessed here Feb 2012.


"We Want to Live As Humans".  Repression of women and girls in western Afghanistan; article is critical of the governor of Herat - Ismail Khan.  Human Rights Watch, December 17, 2002.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

"Taking Cover".  Women in Post-Taliban Afghanistan.  Human Rights Watch, May 9, 2002.  Accessed here Feb 2012.


"Humanity Denied".  Systematic violations of women's rights in Afghanistan.  Human Rights Watch, October 29, 2001.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

Videos about Women in Afghanistan

March 10, 2014. Afghan Women Break Gender Barriers. By The Pentagon Channel posted on YouTube. Reporting by Gail McCabe (2 mins).

Situation for Women in Afghanistan.  By Feminist Majority Foundation on USA Today, February 10, 2012.  Accessed here on YouTube Feb 2012.

News Articles about Women of Afghanistan

April 17, 2017. "In Afghanistan, 'I Feel Like a Divorced Woman Is Up for Grabs'", The New York Times.

February 24, 2016. "Advancing Women's Rights in Afghanistan: A Conversation with Lael Mohib", Asia Foundation. The founder of the Enabled Children Initiative is interviewed.

February 7, 2016. "Empowering women in Afghanistan", Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Government Media & Information Center.

November 4, 2015. "Afghanistan's War Widows". The Wall Street Journal. After decades of conflict many Afghan women struggle to survive on their won.

September 1, 2015. "Ominious Signs en Route to a Unique School for Girls in Afghanistan", Beth Murphy writes in The Huffington Post.

August 31, 2015. "Struggling to pave the way for future leaders in Afghanistan". Los Angeles Times. The female governor of Ghor province is paving the way for others.

August 14, 2015. "Afghan women imprisoned by their culture". The Washington Post. Report on women in Afghanistan's prisons for moral crimes.

May 8, 2015. "The Plight of Women in Afghanistan". The World Post.

March 18, 2015. "Afghan Women Dread Departure of U.S. Forces", Newsweek. Advocates worry that in the rush to the exits women's rights will be neglected.

March 8, 2015. "One Day in a Year: Afghan views on International Women's Day". By Naheed Esar Malikzay of Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN). An observer thinks that this special day needs fewer speeches and more action.

March 2015. "The power of Afghan midwives". Midwives4all.org

March 2, 2015. "Thin Line of Defense Against Honor Killings". By Allisa J. Rubin, The New York Times. Women's shelters are one of the most provocative legacies of the Western presence in Afghanistan.

March 1, 2015. "Narrowing the Gap". The New York Times. A comparison of the living and working conditions among the women of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Bangadesh.

December 15, 2014. "Afghanistan: Uphill struggle for female aid workers". IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis.

December 1, 2014. "Women in Eastern Afghanistan Demand Education". Institute for War & Peace Reporting.

November 30, 2014. "Shame and Impunity: Is domestic violence becoming more brutal?" Afghan Analysts Network.

November 19, 2014. "Does the Ghani Administration Mean a Greater Role for Women in Afghan Economy?" The Asia Foundation.

November 11, 2014. "Largest USAID Women's Empowerment Program in the World Launched in Afghansitan". Ms. Magazine.

November 2, 2014. "Norway negotiates all-female facility at Camp Lion". ISAF.

October 9, 2014. "Will Afghanistan's new first lady push for gender equality?", AOL.com. Rula Ghani could help make a difference.

June 27, 2014. "ISAF's Gender Advisor Mentors Afghan Female Counterparts". American Forces Press Service.

May 25, 2014. "Afghanistan's Women Emerge". The Diplomat. Although life for many Afghan women remains abysmal, some pioneering leaders are inspiring hope.

May 25, 2014. "Gains - and danger - spur women in Afghanistan". The Boston Globe. Report on Representative Niki Tsongas trip to Afghanistan.

March 28, 2014. "Analysis: Challenges of bringing more women into the Afghan justice sector". IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis.

March 25, 2014. "Women's Rights in War Torn Afghanistan: Pervasive Poverty, Oppression and Abuse". Global Research (Canada).

March 19, 2014. "Afghan's words reach eager ears in Portland". Portland Press Herald. Dr. Sima Samar, a women's activist from Afghanistan, discusses the value of education in liberating Afghan women at a Maine forum.

March 19, 2014. "Afghan women need more female judges and prosecutors to get justice - report". Trust.org of the Thomson Reuters Foundation.

March 19, 2014. "Razia Jan fights to educate girls in rural Afghanistan". The Christian Science Monitor.

March 19, 2014. "Women vital for democratic success in Afghanistan, U.N. says". UPI.

March 8, 2014. "Frustration in Afghan women's rights struggle". The Washington Post. Afghan women's rights leader denied visa by State Department.

March 7, 2014. "Afghanistan still one of the worst places to be a woman, says EU ambassador". The Guardian. Hamid Karzai's government has failed women.

March 7, 2014. "Safeguarding Women's Rights in Afghanistan". The Huff Post.

March 6, 2014. "In Afghanistan divorce is always the woman's fault". Womens News Network.

March 5, 2014. "Securing a Place for Afghan Women in the Workplace". The Asia Foundation. News from a recent women's forum held in Kabul.

March 5, 2014. "The indomitable spirit of Afghan women writers". News Journal.

March 5, 2014. "The Secret Lives of Afghanistan's Female Poets". Slate.com.

March 5, 2014. "Back to the Past in Afghanistan". Huffington Post.

March 3, 2014. "Fighting the Good Fight for Women's Rights in Afghanistan". Foreign Policy.

February 8, 2014. "New Afghan Law Disastrous for Women, Days National Geographic Photographer". National Geographic. Proposed law passed by the Afghan Parliament and awaiting signature by President Karzai.

February 8, 2014. Interview of Fawzia Koofi: Female MP in Afghan Parliament. The Guardian. An outspoken advocate of women's rights in Afghanistan.

February 4, 2014. "Afghanistan: Reject New Law Protecting Abusers of Women". Human Rights Watch. New criminal procedure code will deny women protection.

January 23, 2014. "Women's rights in Afghanistan worsen in 2013: report". NBC News. A Human Rights Watch report expresses concern with ISAF withdrawal.

January 21, 2014. "Afghan women and the post-2014 economy". DEVEX.

January 20, 2014. "EU and Afghanistan: Mission accomplished, women abandoned?" EU Observer.

January 14, 2014. "Afghanistan picks woman for senior police role". Telegraph.

January 14, 2014. "Afghan Women Work, Learn and Make Gains in Former Taliban Base". Voice of America. Women in Kandahar province making some strides.

January 14, 2014. "Violence Against Women in Afghanistan Peaked in 2013". The Diplomat. According to the Independent Human Rights Commission of Afghanistan (AIHRC) violence reached record levels in Afghanistan.

January 12, 2014. "Can Afghan women seek sanctuary in the Internet's virtual veil?" Stars and Stripes.

December 17, 2013. "Absent Social Change, Women Will Continue to Suffer in Afghanistan". TheLedger.com. Michael McDaniel, a Rule of Law Advisor for 3 1/2 years assigned to the British mission in Helmand province provides insight into the status of women in Afghanistan in the face of the Coalition withdrawal.

October 22, 2013. "Fighting for women's rights in Afghanistan". Foreign Policy.

October 10, 2013. "In Afghanistan, A Window of Opportunity For Girls in a Closed Society". Forbes.com.

October 9, 2013. "Norway to Cut Funding to Afghanistan". The Nordic Page. Norway has cut 2014 funding to Afghanistan because of lack of progress in women's issues.

September 29, 2013. "Donkey Ambulance Rides to the Rescue of Afghan Women in Labor". Radio Free Europe.

September 25, 2013. "Afghan women gain education and rights but still face abuse, forces marriages". The Washington Post.

September 18, 2013. "As Election Nears in Afghanistan, Women's Political Participation is Critical". Asia Foundation.

September 6, 2013. "Multi-Million Dollar Program Announced to Support Afghan Women's Political Participation". Ms. Magazine.

September 1, 2013. "Afghan female military pilot gives wing to young girls' dreams". The Christian Science Monitor.

August 7, 2013. "Hope for Afghanistan's Women Entrepreneurs?" Asia Foundation.

August 4, 2013. "Afghan 'Voice of Women' Back on Air". Radio Free Europe.

July 5, 2013. "Female Afghan cop, hailed as women's rights hero, shot dead". Washington Times. LT Islam Bibi slain.

June 18, 2013. "Latifa Nabizada - Afghanistan's first woman of the skies". BBC.

June 16, 2013. "U.S., Afghanistan Agree on Memorandum of Understanding to Improve Afghan Women's Economic Empowerment". United States Trade Representative.

June 8, 2013. "Afghanistan: Women in parliment recieve threats - from fellow lawmakers". The Christian Science Monitor. Mood changes in Afghan parliament.

June 4, 2013. "Literacy and Networking for Afghan Women Through Texting". The Huffington Post.

May 28, 2013. "The women . . . really are my heroes". DVIDS. A womens shelter in Afghanistan receives assistance from the U.S. military.

May 28, 2013. "Designer Kathleen Sommers to showcase Afghanistan merchandise in San Antonio". Alamo City Beat. Women artisans.

May 23, 2013. "Women's access to mobile phones increasing in Afghanistan". Asia Pacific Gov. 48 % reported to own their cell phones.

May 22, 2013. "Afghan Women Arrested for 'Moral Crimes' Increases 50%". Ms. Magazine. Many women falsely accused of attempted zina.

May 22, 2013. "Women's Rights at Stake in Afghanistan". Eurasia Review.

May 22, 2013. "Afghan Students Protest Women's Rights Decree". ABC News.

May 21, 2013. "Now or Never? Securing Women's Rights in Afghanistan". George W. Bush Institute.

May 18, 2013. "Effort to Strengthen an Afghan Law on Women May Backfire". The New York Times. Elimination of Violence Against Women Act, issued as a decree in 2009 is at risk.

May 14, 2013. "Denver woman making a difference in Afghanistan". 9News.com.

May 13, 2013. "Roby Returns from Afghanistan Visit". WTVY.com. CODEL to evaluate and promote the interests of Afghan women.

May 10, 2013. "No Burquas Behind Bars: Documentary looks at women in Afghanistan's prisons". Rabble.ca.

May 10, 2013. "Aesha's progress: Afghan Woman's nose nearly complete". CNN.

May 9, 2013. "A Quiet Transformation: Afghan Women's Networking Movement". The Huffington Post. Article by Dr. Sakena Yacoobi.

May 8, 2013. "Afghanistan, No Country for Young Women". The Huffington Post.

May 3, 2013. "Corruption is a brutal enemy of Afghan women". Thomson Reuters Foundation.  By Sima Samar, Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission.

April 26, 2013. "As U.S. plans withdrawal, Afghan women uncertain about future". Air Force Times.

April 25, 2013. "Transitioning to Afghan Security Lead: Protecting Afghan Women?" Armed Services Committee Testimony by Mr. David Sedney, Ms. Clare Lockhart, Ms. Stephanie Sanok, and MG Michael Shields.

April 12, 2013. "Gender and Transition in Afghanistan". By Vanita Datta, Small Wars Journal. The author reviews the plight of Afghan women.

March 13, 2013. "Women in Afghanistan could lose rights gained over past decade, say participants of OSCE event in Vienna". OSCE.

February 25, 2013. "The plight of the Afghan women". Varsity.co.uk.

February 20, 2013. "The Afghan Battle Over a Law to Protect Women". NPR.

December 27, 2012. "What's at stake for Afghan women". By Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, special to CNN News.

December 24, 2012. "Women of Afghanistan". The New York Times. By Sunita Viswanath, Esther Hyneman, and Manizha Naderi.

December 12, 2012. "Recent Incidents of Violence Against Women in Afghanistan". Department of State. Hillary Clinton statement.

December 3, 2012. "If we betray Afghan women, the Taliban win". CNN.com.

November 8, 2012. "The future of Afghan women". The Washington Post.

October 19, 2012. "A Disturbing Spree of Attacks Against Afghan Women". The Atlantic.

October 5, 2012. "If There's No Peace in Afghanistan, It's Women Who Will Suffer Most". Forbes.com.

September 18, 2012. "Afghanistan: Free Women Jailed for Running Away". Human Rights Watch.

April 9, 2012. "Afghan Women, Culture, and Development". The World Post. Melissa Kerr Chiovenda, an anthropologist working in Afghanistan, presents her perspective on the situation of Afghan women.

March 31, 2012.  "Insight: Lifting the veil on Afghanistan's female addicts".  Reuters.com.

March 27, 2012.  "Afghan women are being jailed for moral crimes, says report". The Guardian.

March 2012.  "Dairy goat project improves women's welfare in Afghanistan".  International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA).

March 16, 2012.  "Afghan Prison's Invasive Searches of Female Visitors Stir Fear of Slipping Rights".  The New York Times.

March 15, 2012.  "U.S. must not abandon Afghan women to the Taliban".  by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon, CNN.

March 8, 2012.  "Afghans lampoon clerics over women ruling".  BBC News Asia.

March 8, 2012.  "Are Afghan women better off after a decade of war?".  CNN Opinion.  Article by Heather Barr - an Afghanistan researcher for Human Rights Watch.

March 8, 2012.  "US: Don't Abandon Afghan Women".  Human Rights Now Blog.

March 6, 2012.  "Afghan president endorses clerics' strict code of conduct for women, worrying activists".  The Washington Post.

March 2, 2012.  "Afghan general breaks barriers to build better nation".  NTM-A.

February 22, 2012.  "Determination defined: remembering an Afghan pioneer".  The AFPAK Channel, Foreign Policy.

February 16, 2012.  "For Punishment of Elder's Misdeeds, Afghan Girl Pays the Price". The New York Times.

February 16, 2012.  "Ambassador Hakimi Speaks on the Role of Women in Afghanistan's Peace Process".  Embassy of Afghanistan.

February 12, 2012.  "Afghan women fear Taliban return".  AFP Google.

February 12, 2012.  "Baby Girls Seen As Mixed Blessing in Afghanistan".  Radio Liberty.

February 9, 2012.  "Afghanistan's Opium Child Brides".  The Atlantic.

January 31, 2012.  "Mistreatment of Afghan women caused by far more than Taliban".  The Christian Science Monitor.

January 28, 2012.  "The Place of Women in the Afghanistan Peace Process".  Forbes.com.

January 13, 2012.  "Afghan solutions for Afghan women".  By Lael A. Mohib, The AFPAK Channel, Foreign Policy.

December 23, 2011.  "Afghan men: crucial advocates for women's rights".  Reuters.

December 5, 2011.  "UN Women Urges Full Participation of Afghan Women in the Road Ahead from Bonn".  United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment.

December 2, 2011.  "For Afghan Women, Rape Law Offers Little Protection".  NPR.

November 23, 2011.  "Afghanistan has a long way to go in protecting women from violence".  UN News Centre.

November 9, 2011.  "Clinton vows to fight for Afghan women's rights".  Google Hosted News.

October 20, 2011.  "UN Women Launches Multi-Province Project on Ending Violence Against Women in Afghanistan".  UN Women.

October 6, 2011.  "Afghanistan ten years on: women's views".  The Independent.

September 27, 2011.  "Afghanistan's widows face a bleak fight for survival".  Public Radio International.

September 9, 2011.  "Forgetting Afghanistan's women".  The AFPAK Channel.

August 24, 2011.  "Afghanistan National Parliament to Establish Resource Centre to Promote Women's Role in Decision-making Processes".  UN Women.

March 8, 2011.  "Women's rights in Afghanistan lose steam".  The Christian Science Monitor.

January 3, 2011.  "Fleeing Violent Husbands Puts Afghan Women in Jail".  Time.

December 9, 2010.  "Harmful traditional practices against women pervasive in Afghanistan".  UN News Centre.

December 2010.  "Afghan Women - Veiled Rebellion".  National Geographic.

August 15, 2010.  "How Settling With the Taliban Puts Women at Risk".  Human Rights Watch.

July 14, 2010.  "The Taliban War on Women Continues".  Human Rights Watch.

March 11, 2010.  "The Secret Shelters that Protect Afghan Women".  ABC.

February 18, 2013. "Trying to Win Afghanistan without Afghan Women", Small Wars Journal.

August 18, 2009.  "For Afghan Women, Rights Again at Risk".  Human Rights Watch.

August 14, 2009.  "Afghanistan: Law Curbing Women's Rights Takes Effect".  Human Rights Watch.

April 15, 2009. "Afghan Women Protest New Law on Home Life". The New York Times.

March 1, 2005.  "The women of Afghanistan".  CBC News.

November 3, 2003.  "Anthropologist discusses rise in status of women in Afghanistan".  The Daily Princetonian.

December 12, 2002.  "Afghanistan's Women Still Need Our Help".  Human Rights Watch.

September 28, 2001.  "Behind the burka".  The Guardian.

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1.  For a detailed description of a woman's life during the Taliban era see "Women and Girls in Afghanistan", a fact sheet by the U.S. Department of State released March 10, 1998 accessed here in February 2012.

2.  See "Anthropologist discusses rise in status of women in Afghanistan", The Daily Princetonian, November 3, 2003.  The anthropologist Micheline Centlivres-Demont provided insight on the plight of Afghan women in a lecture.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

3.  Lael A. Mohib, a humanitarian worker in Afghanistan suggests that small-scale, local enterprises funded with micro-grants or -loans are a culturally acceptable solution for advancing the social and economic status of Afghan women.  See her article entitled "Afghan solutions for Afghan women", The AFPAK Channel Blog, Foreign Policy dated January 13, 2012 accessed here February 2012.

4.  One important improvement is the opening of schools for girls.  See "Rising literacy in Afghanistan ensures transition", June 13, 2011, accessed here on army.mil Feb 2012.

5.  The hardships that women face giving birth are astounding.  Find more about this in Afghanistan is a killing field for moms, babies, by Rosie DiManno, The Star.  Accessed here Feb 2012.

6. For more on problems of recruiting women into the ANSF see "Afghan Policewomen Struggle Against Culture", The New York Times, March 2, 2015.




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